Monday, August 24, 2020
It is a sensible desire that the media will assemble the realities and report the news decently, precisely and mindfully. The American open depends on the media for a lot of its data. Ã¢â¬Å"The job of the press in American governmental issues has become a significant wellspring of conversation and discussion in ongoing yearsÃ¢â¬ (Davis, 1). The inquiry brought up in this paper is, Ã¢â¬Å"Does the media present the news reasonably, precisely, and completely?Ã¢â¬ The short answer is no, the long answer will be analyzed all through the accompanying exposition. This exposition will analyze the media and its impact and consequences for legislative issues and government. Ã¢â¬Å"Publick OccurrencesÃ¢â¬ was the main paper to show up in pioneer America. This distribution starts the historical backdrop of the media and its consequences for legislative issues and government in America. The paper was struck down not long after being distributed and its distributers captured. Without the insurance of the First Amendment, papers had minimal possibility of endurance; particularly on the off chance that they were reproachful of set up power. The primary effectively distributed American paper came very nearly fifteen years after the fact in 1704. It was entitled the Ã¢â¬Å"Boston News-LetterÃ¢â¬ . A few different papers came into course in frontier America and not long before the Revolution there were twenty-four papers available for use. Articles in pilgrim papers were a significant wellspring of political weight in moving general supposition from compromise with England to finish political freedom. In this way started the historical backdrop of the media impact in America and its consequences for American government and legislative issues. The quantity of printed papers in America kept on developing and before the finish of the Revolution there were roughly forty-three papers accessible to people in general. They assumed a significant job, educating people in general, in the political undertakings of the youthful country. In 1791 the Bill of Rights was passed making sure about the opportunity of the press. Ensured by the First ... Free Essays on Media And Politics Free Essays on Media And Politics It is a sensible desire that the media will accumulate the realities and report the news decently, precisely and capably. The American open depends on the media for a lot of its data. Ã¢â¬Å"The job of the press in American governmental issues has become a significant wellspring of conversation and debate in late yearsÃ¢â¬ (Davis, 1). The inquiry brought up in this paper is, Ã¢â¬Å"Does the media present the news reasonably, precisely, and completely?Ã¢â¬ The short answer is no, the long answer will be inspected all through the accompanying article. This paper will look at the media and its impact and consequences for legislative issues and government. Ã¢â¬Å"Publick OccurrencesÃ¢â¬ was the principal paper to show up in provincial America. This distribution starts the historical backdrop of the media and its impacts on legislative issues and government in America. The paper was struck down not long after being distributed and its distributers captured. Without the security of the First Amendment, papers had minimal possibility of endurance; particularly in the event that they were condemning of set up power. The primary effectively distributed American paper came right around fifteen years after the fact in 1704. It was entitled the Ã¢â¬Å"Boston News-LetterÃ¢â¬ . A few different papers came into flow in provincial America and not long before the Revolution there were twenty-four papers available for use. Articles in frontier papers were a significant wellspring of political weight in moving popular conclusion from compromise with England to finish political freedom. Along these lines started the historical backdrop of the media impact in America and its consequences for American government and legislative issues. The quantity of printed papers in America kept on developing and before the finish of the Revolution there were roughly forty-three papers accessible to people in general. They assumed a significant job, illuminating people in general, in the political undertakings of the youthful country. In 1791 the Bill of Rights was passed making sure about the opportunity of the press. Ensured by the First ...
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Proposition for the Formal Analytical Report - Essay Example cked it can and will develop into a circumstance that can undermine the capacities of neighborhood firms and banks to make a benefit because of the diminished trust with which they see the cash that goes to their hands every day. Appropriately, this proposition will work to plot the manners by which banks just as different firms can organize a progression of practices and methods which can help ebb the tide of falsifying as it is right now being knowledgeable about and around the zone of Penn State University. The investigation will have the compound impact of having the option to furnish neighborhood business and keeping money with proper estimates which can be executed to ensure against such extortion/duplicating, just as giving a rundown of explicit model which ought to be followed so as to limit the event an impacts of such activities. Moreover, I will offer my arrangements for creating potential answers for this issue, talk about my capabilities for leading the exploration, and will give a timetable on which I will base my examination exercises. During the previous month and a half there has been a quick uptick in the quantity of phony bills being passed in and around Penn State University. This has been happening at an assortment of areas that don't appear to be connected other than that are for the most part places of business that handle money every day. In that capacity, the issue bears a digressive connection to business and financial matters because of the way that retail foundations and people are legally necessary to transmit fake cash to the essential specialists with no repayment for the presumptive worth of the fake bill they acquired because of genuine assistance, great or different business action. Along these lines, the monetary misfortune frames a kind of twofold misfortune that must be consumed by the business element being referred to. Moreover, in spite of the fact that the monetary effect of ongoing ascent in fake bills won't have the impact of devastating the nearby economy, the truth is that fundamentall y
Friday, July 17, 2020
How to Write a Philosophy Term Paper The Best Approach to Write on Philosophy Term Paper Topics Writing a philosophy term paper is very challenging because it differs from writing assignments in other college courses, even in humanities. What makes a good philosophy paper? A good paper in philosophy consists of the reasoned defense of some claim so it must offer an argument which clearly presents the rationale for the claims that you make in your paper. You should consider your philosophy paper as an attempt to persuade your readers to accept your position. Thatâs why you should not start your paper with expressing ideas that your opponents will refuse to accept. If you want to succeed in persuading your audience, you should start with some common assumptions that everybody is likely to agree to. A good paper in philosophy is rather moderate and makes a small point, but this point is stated clearly and straightforwardly. Besides, it is supported by convincing arguments. Thatâs why you should not be over-ambitious. A good philosophy paper has to be original, demonstrate some independent thinking, and have contemplative critical responses to the philosophy works you read. Many students find the mere thought of writing a term paper on philosophy intimidating, so weâve put together 10 key rules that will help you understand how to write a term paper in philosophy. Weâll take you through the preparation stages, explain how to structure your paper, and give you some advice on how to avoid the most common errors. Know the study material Spend some time planning to work out what your research question is asking for. Assignments in philosophy usually ask you to consider certain thesis or argument, usually presented by another philosopher and do one of the following things: explain it, give an argument that supports it, offer your objection to it, evaluate some arguments for and against it, discuss the possible consequences of it, etc. You should do some reading and make notes on it. Write a structured term paper outline First, plan what you want to say and determine the order you want to say it. What is a philosophy term paper outline? There are different approaches to outlining a term paper in philosophy, but typically, a philosophy paper should have sections where you present someoneâs point of view and parts in which you assess that viewpoint, and present your own position in the process. Say what you are going to argue Write an introduction and explain what you are going to argue. Formulate your thesis clearly and concisely. Provide some background information and present different stages of your argument to provide your audience with a map of what to expect from your paper. Argue to your conclusion This is the main focus of your philosophy paper. Make your arguments as convincing as you can. In order to make your argument stronger, you should anticipate and answer objections to it. Try to be as concise as possible, if you use unnecessary words, you may distract and confuse your reader. Make the structure of your term paper obvious Use connective words like since, therefore, consequently, however, on the other hand, etc. to show your reader where your discussion is going. Remind your readers what you have done so far and explain what your next step is going to be. Write clearly and concisely Philosophy is a complex field of knowledge so you should try to use straightforward style and explain your point as clear as possible before you move to the next one. Give examples and definitions Philosophy is abstract and hard to understand so good examples are the best way to make your claims clearer. Consider opposing views Present and assess different views on the topic. When doing this, you present competing answers and give your reasons for rejecting them. Avoid common errors that students make You should avoid common things that cause students to lose marks, such as repetition, irrelevance, ambiguous or vague language, inaccurate interpretation of somebodyâs position, poor arguments. Redraft your final paper Before submitting your philosophy paper, read it and check for different pitfall that we have mentioned. Youâd better write several drafts of your paper to be sure that your arguments are clear to your reader and your style is perfect. Now that you know 10 essential rules for writing a great philosophy paper, you can apply them for any type of writing in philosophy, for example, a political philosophy term paper. Where to Find Interesting Philosophy Term Paper Ideas It might be difficult to find original ideas for philosophy projects. You can use some effective keywords and search term to google for primary and secondary sources such as online books, philosophy databases, scholarly articles, and websites of philosophy departments at universities. For your term paper, you will need to have an opinion on a certain issue and argue your position in a clear and logical manner. You can take some fundamental and eternal philosophical questions that exist since the dawn of the mankind. If you are looking for good philosophy term paper topics, you can take an old debate on some important issue and update it for the 21st century. Philosophy is a complicated field of knowledge and writing philosophy projects may be too challenging. It requires strong analytical and critical thinking skills and outstanding communication skills to convey complex ideas effectively. If you struggle with your philosophy papers, you can get professional help with completing any project on our custom paper writing service. Our qualified writers have necessary experience and skills to cope with any rare or unusual topic and present a piece of writing that is perfect in content and style.
Thursday, May 21, 2020
In The Interpretation of Cultures, Clifford Geertz neatly collects many of the essays written throughout his academic career. From field research in Indonesia and Morocco to highly theoretical pieces, Geertz contributed a massive amount of work to the study of anthropology, including a new definition of religion, which has been subjected to much admiration and scrutiny. In this essay, I will be discussing some of GeertzÃ¢â¬â¢s terminology, cockfightingÃ¢â¬â¢s relationship with religion, AsadÃ¢â¬â¢s enlightening critique, and webs of significance. For starters, I will say that I actually read another one of GeertzÃ¢â¬â¢s pieces, Islam Observed, a year ago, and while I liked some of his ideas, I interpreted his tone and word choices at times as a tad bit condescending. I found Ã¢â¬Å"Religion as a Cultural SystemÃ¢â¬ to be the same as well in terms of rubbing me the wrong way. Phrases like Ã¢â¬Å"infantile fairy tale worldsÃ¢â¬ (103) or Ã¢â¬Å"bizarre perspective embodied in dreams and hallucinations (110)Ã¢â¬ are just a couple of things he says that seem strange and off-putting. Nevertheless, I will not concentrate too much on these words, for I found some other words more problematic and confusing. If you happen to know GeertzÃ¢â¬â¢s personality, I would be interested to hear what he was like. Anyways, while reading this particular GeertzÃ¢â¬â¢s essay, I was impressed by how detailed Geertz is in defining not only religion but most of the other words he associates with religion like symbol, mood, motivation, andShow MoreRelatedClifford Geertz - Interpretive Anthropology2636 Words Ã |Ã 11 PagesSocial Anthropology Essay. How would you summarize Clifford GeertzÃ¢â¬â¢s contribution to the field of anthropology? Clifford Geertz I have chosen this essay on Geertz, as the information I received in class I found interesting and wanted to elaborate on the knowledge I already had. In this essay, I will be discussing GeertzÃ¢â¬â¢s contributions to anthropology, and what I have interpreted these contributions as myself. When looking at GeertzÃ¢â¬â¢s ideas and theories in Anthropology, some of these ideas andRead MoreSymbolic Interactionism and Geertz Deep Play - an Integration1448 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesSymbolic Interactionism and GeertzÃ¢â¬â¢ Deep Play Symbolic interaction, one of the three main perspectives of the social sciences of Anthropology and Sociology, was thought to be first conceived by Max Weber and George Herbert Mead as they both emphasized the subjective meaning of human behavior, the social process, and the humanistic way of viewing of Anthropology and Sociology. As human behavior and socialization were observed, Mead discovered that behavior may be either overt, meaning observableRead MoreAnthropologists Should Put More Emphasis On Individual Differences And Meanings That Are Not Shared1257 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesshared. Culture is composed of individuals. We know that the individual is an important part of any culture because cultures are not uniform Ã¢â¬â they differ from one another and they differ from themselves over time. This difference is a product of the inherent uniqueness of the individuals who compose a culture and no science that claims to Ã¢â¬Å"study cultureÃ¢â¬ could be considered a true science if it ignored the building blocks of the subject it is studying. Clifford Geertz shares his views on culture in hisRead MoreThe Revival of Indigenous Movements1862 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesspirits, sacred mountains an invisible sky and water gods. Most modernist thinkers have rejected such beliefs as primitive, backward and unscientific, a relic of the past, although relativists and cultural realists like Clifford Geertz have always been able to accept cultures and ways of life on their own terms rather than trying to fit them into rigid laws and frameworks of social and economic development. Even Durkheim and Marx, who regarded urban, industrial capitalism as producing a societyRead More Different Cultures, Different Essay957 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Every society and culture has different ways of interpreting and defining occurrences by the way their own culture or society functions. Ã¢â¬Å"A societyÃ¢â¬â¢s culture, consists of whatever it is one has to know or believe in order to operate in a manner acceptable to its membersÃ¢â¬ (Geertz 242). The rituals, customs, ethics and morals that are attributed to the cultures have caused these differences. To understand how the people of one culture interpret a situation or event, one must evaluate the attributesRead MoreSimilarities In The Opposition. Ideas Do Not Prove Their909 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageswithstand the challenge of being questioned. On the surface, professor Craig Martin and anthropologist Clifford Geertz approach analyzing religion with opposing views. Martin dismisses definitions of religion claiming that no definition can encompass the practical use of the word and instead provides a step by step approach to explaining beliefs and actions in the perspective of a meth odological atheist. Geertz, however, provides a working definition broken into a five-part model to make it a useful toolRead MoreThose Kind Of Discriminations Are What Taylor Callsstrong Evaluation1727 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesthemÃ¢â¬ ; fifthly and lastly, Ã¢â¬Å"that these articulations, which we can think of as interpretations, require languageÃ¢â¬ . These five points together constitute his thesis Ã¢â¬Ëhuman beings are self-interpreting animalsÃ¢â¬â¢. The thesis means not only that human beings own Ã¢â¬Å"some compulsive tendency to form reflexive views of himself [or herself], but rather as he [or she] is, he [or she] is always partly constituted by self-interpretation, that is, by his [her] understanding of the imports which impinge on him [her]Ã¢â¬ Read MoreAnalysis Of Meanings And Concepts Of Culture Essay1422 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe analysis of meanings and concepts of culture The objective of this essay is to present and analyse the main definitions of the word culture through different social and historical processes, starting from the ancient times to the most modern times. Starting from the etymology of the word, the term culture derives from the latin word colÃ ¨re, that means to farm the land, and only after, this meaning was extended to the term cultus, that stands for a literate man, and there is a connectionRead MoreSimilarities And Differences Between The Human Mind And Science, History, And Literature1486 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageslaunch assumptions about knowledge and culture; science, after all, isnÃ¢â¬â¢t primary or even essential in these processes. The human mind, however, was. The traditional studies of literature, psychology, and history are in some important ways closer to the source of human knowledge in this model laid out by Sapir and Whorf. Of course, the individual human mind is impossible to enter and so expressions of these ideas, rather than the ideas themselve,s are Ã¢â¬Å"cultureÃ¢â¬ and important. These ideas were hugelyRead MoreClifford Geertz Religion As A Cultural System Summary1495 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesClifford Gee rtz, in his essay Ã¢â¬Å"Religion as a Cultural SystemÃ¢â¬ , presents what he considers to be the definition of religion. According to him, religion is about symbols and people use these symbols as a guide for their view of the world and how they should behave in that world. Religion, states Geertz is Ã¢â¬Å"a system of symbols which acts to establish powerful, pervasive, and long-lasting moods and motivations in men by formulating conceptions of a general order of existence and clothing these conceptions
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
CanadaÃ¢â¬â¢s geography and historic development have shaped its current political context. Do you agree or disagree? Do you think that this has made Canada a more (or less) difficult place to govern? Please explain. CanadaÃ¢â¬â¢s natural resources are distributed and differ along the territory. Therefore there is an uneven distribution of wealth because of the different economic sectors, which fluctuate the prosperity of the territory. Politics focus on the wealthy territories more than others since the transformation of natural resources represent the biggest part of CanadaÃ¢â¬â¢s GDP which means a better economy. CanadaÃ¢â¬â¢s Natural Resources CanadaÃ¢â¬â¢s geography is very diverse and the location of natural resources and the density of populationÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦This has become a huge political debate whether the CWB is that effective or each farmer should be free to make their own business decisions. There are other grains like canola that have a higher market value. For some farmers producing less quantity but receiving a higher value may be more attractive. (torontosun.com 2012) The issue here is how to manage the trade of natural resources and who is ultimately responsible for this trade. Is the board being efficient or farmers need their freedom to make these decisions? Some farmers are happy with the government having the control over them. Friends of the Canadian Wheat Board for example an organization of farmers are fully in favor of a monopoly. Recently, the CWB announced they will give up to their power and will leave the farmers with the freedom to sell to it to whoever they wanted. For some t his represents better prices and opportunities and for others a violation to the Canadian Wheat Board Act by repealing the act without a vote. (www.pembinatoday.ca 2012). This is a clear example of how geography has a huge impact in Canadian politics. Different areas have different economic sectors making the government issues totally different, shaping them at the same time. The political struggle continues as it seems neither way regulation nor deregulation of wheat seems to have a perfectly working system. DeregulationShow MoreRelatedCourse outline GEO7933080 Words Ã |Ã 13 Pages GEO 793: The Geography of Toronto- Winter 2015 Course Instructor Valentina Capurri JOR 601 Ext. 3120 email@example.com Office Hours: Monday 15:00 to 17:30 Lectures: Sec. 1: Mon. 13:00 to 15:00 DSQ2, Wed. 11:00 to 12:00 LIB072 Sec. 2: Mon. 11:00 to 13:00 EPH229; Wen. 9:00 to 10:00 ENG101 Sec. 3: Mon. 18:00 to 21:00 TRS2166 Course Exclusions: This is an Upper Level Liberal Studies. The course is not available to students in the Geographic Analysis ProgramRead MoreSoft Power6538 Words Ã |Ã 27 Pages12/08/2008 12:33 Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of JSTORs Terms and Conditions of Use, available at http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp. JSTORs Terms and Conditions of Use provides, in part, that unless you have obtained prior permission, you may not download an entire issue of a journal or multiple copies of articles, and you may use content in the JSTOR archive only for your personal, non-commercial use. Please contact the publisher regarding any furtherRead MoreOne Significant Change That Has Occurred in the World Between 1900 and 2005. Explain the Impact This Change Has Made on Our Lives and Why It Is an Important Change.163893 Words Ã |Ã 656 PagesBrier, and Roy Rosenzweig Also in this series: Paula Hamilton and Linda Shopes, eds., Oral History and Public Memories Tiffany Ruby Patterson, Zora Neale Hurston and a History of Southern Life Lisa M. Fine, The Story of Reo Joe: Work, Kin, and Community in Autotown, U.S.A. Van Gosse and Richard Moser, eds., The World the Sixties Made: Politics and Culture in Recent America Joanne Meyerowitz, ed., History and September 11th John McMillian and Paul Buhle, eds., The New Left Revisited David MRead MoreExploring Corporate Strategy - Case164366 Words Ã |Ã 658 Pages597 CASE STUDIES ECS8C_C01.qxd 22/10/2007 11:54 Page 598 ECS8C_C01.qxd 22/10/2007 11:54 Page 599 Guide to using the case studies The main text of this book includes 87 short illustrations and 15 case examples which have been chosen to enlarge speciÃ¯ ¬ c issues in the text and/or provide practical examples of how business and public sector organisations are managing strategic issues. The case studies which follow allow the reader to extend this linking of theory and practiceRead MoreManaging Information Technology (7th Edition)239873 Words Ã |Ã 960 PagesRiver, New Jersey 07458. Many of the designations by manufacturers and sellers to distinguish their products are claimed as trademarks. Where those designations appear in this book, and the publisher was aware of a trademark claim, the designations have been printed in initial caps or all caps. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Managing information technology / Carol V. Brown . . . [et al.]. Ã¢â¬â 7th ed. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN-13: 978-0-13-214632-6Read MoreFundamentals of Hrm263904 Words Ã |Ã 1056 PagesKNOW?: Chief Diversity Officer 11 How Diversity Affects HRM 11 WORKPLACE ISSUES: Diversity Awareness 12 What Is a Work/Life Balance? 12 DID YOU KNOW?: Looking at the Future of HRM 13 DID YOU KNOW?: International Diversity 14 The Labor Supply 14 Do We Have a Shortage of Skilled Labor? 14 Why Do Organizations Lay Off Employees during Shortages? 15 How Do Organizations Balance Labor Supply? 15 Issues Contingent Workers Create for HRM 16 Continuous Improvement Programs 18 Work Process Engineering 19 How
The crack widths predicted by the different codes have been calculated for a range of varying parameters: Varying tension reinforcement stress (Figure 9) Varying cover (Figure 10) Varying bar spacing with constant reinforcement area and stress. (Figure 1 1) Varying bar spacing with constant reinforcement area and maximum stress to AS 3600. Figure 12) BBS 5400 results have been plotted using a Ms / MGM ratio of 0. We will write a custom essay sample on Concrete or any similar topic only for you Order Now 1 and 1. All results have used long term values where available. Larger versions of these graphs may be found on the Powering presentation associated with this paper. The following observations can be made from the graph results: The BBS 5400 results using the two different load ratios gave substantially different results, with the higher ratio giving increased crack widths. The BBS 8110 results were either approximately centrally placed between the two BBS 5400 results, or close to the lower values. The Recoded 2 results were usually reasonably close to the mean of the other results. The CUBE-Flip-1990 results were consistently the lowest for high steel stresses and high concrete cover values. Results with varying spacing were close to Recoded 2 results. The IAC 318 results were consistently the highest, being close to and slightly higher than the upper bound BBS 5400 values. All crack widths increased approximately linearly with increasing steel stress Crack widths increased with increasing cover, with Recoded 2 reaching a constant value at 70 mm cover, and the CUBE-PIP code at 35 mm cover. The other codes continued to increase more than linearly up to 100 mm cover. All codes predicted increasing crack width with increasing bar spacing and constant reinforcement area steel stress. Figure 9: Varying tension reinforcement stress Figure 10: Varying cover Figure 11: Varying bar spacing with constant reinforcement area and stress Figure 12: Varying bar spacing with constant reinforcement area and maximum stress to AS 3600. When the steel stress was adjusted to the maximum allowable under AS 3600 (I. E. Reduced for increasing bar spacing and increasing bar diameter) the predicted crack widths were reasonably uniform in the spacing range 50 to 200 mm, then tended to reduce with greater spacing. DEFLECTION The main differences in approach to the calculation of deflections are summarized low: Australian and American codes are based on the Brannon equation, using a uniform average effective stiffness value. Australian codes allow for loss of tension stiffening through a reduction of the cracking moment related to the free concrete shrinkage. Allowance for shrinkage curvature in the Australian codes is simplified and will underestimate curvature in symmetrically reinforced sections. British codes allow only a low tension value for cracked sections, which is further reduced for long term deflections European codes adopt an intermediate approach for cracked sections, tit an allowance for loss of tension stiffening. British and European code provisions for shrinkage curvature are essentially the same Effective stiffness, calculated according to AS 3600, Recoded 2, BBS 5400, and BBS 8110, and with no tension stiffening, is plotted against bending moment for the same concrete section used in the crack width analysis. Figure 13 shows results with no shrinkage, and Figure 14 with a shrinkage of 300 Microscopic. RESEARCH ABOUT THE METHODS USED IN DIFFERENCE CONCRETE STANDARDS AS 3600 limits the maximum reinforcement stress under serviceability loads to a axiom value dependent on either the bar diameter or the bar spacing, whichever gives the greater stress. AS 5100 has the same limits, with an additional requirement to check for lower limits under permanent loads for elements in exposure classifications 82, C or U. Recoded 2 limits stresses in essentially the same way, except that the limits are presented as maximum bar spacing or diameter for a specified stress, rather than vice versa. The Recoded 2 limits are related to 3 different values of nominal crack width, 0. 2 mm, 0. 3 mm or 0. 4 mm, under pseudo-static loading. The applicable crack Edith depends on the exposure classification and type of member. Code Provisions for Crack Width Limits As well as stress limits, Recoded 2 has detailed provisions for the calculation of design crack widths, which are summarized below: The basic formula for crack width: crack spacing x (mean steel strain Ã¢â¬â mean concrete strain) makes no allowance for variation in crack width between the level of the reinforcement and the surface of the concrete, however the crack spacing is mainly related to the cover depth, and the crack width is directly proportional to crack spacing, so the depth of cover has a significant effect on crack widths. The expression for Seems Ã¢â¬â ECMA limits the effect of tension stiffening to 40% of the steel strain. For long term effects the tension stiffening coefficient is reduced by 1/3, from 0. 6 to 0. 4. The British concrete design codes specify a design crack width at the surface of the concrete as follows: The basic approach is similar to Recoded 2, except that the crack width is projected from the reinforcement level to the concrete surface. The main differences between BBS 5400 and BBS 8110 are: BBS 5400 includes a factor to reduce the effect of tension stiffening, depending on the ratio of live load moment to dead load moment (Ms / MGM). The effect of this is to reduce tension stiffening effects to zero for a load ratio of 1 or greater. The tension stiffening coefficients are differently formulated. The IAC requirements are based on stress limits derived from the Surgery-Lutz equation: The IAC 318 equation makes no allowance for tension stiffening, and predicts crack width at the upper bound of those studied in this paper. Results are usually similar to those from the BBS 5400 equation using a Ms / MGM ratio of 1 . AS 3600, AS 5100, and IAC 318 AS 3600 and AS 5100 provisions for Ã¢â¬Å"simplifiedÃ¢â¬ calculation of deflections are identical other than a typographical error in AS 5100), and are both based on the Ã¢â¬Å"BrannonÃ¢â¬ equation, which is also used in IAC 318. The equation in IAC 318 is differently formulated, but will give identical results for the same cracking moment and section stiffness values. The AS 3600 version of the equation is shown below: left is calculated for the maximum moment section, and applied along the full length of the member being analyses. The calculation of the cracking moment in the Australian codes (but not IAC 318) includes an allowance for the shrinkage induced tensile stress in the unchecked section, which contributes to loss of tension stiffening: AS 3600 and AS 5100 provide a factor KC , applied to the calculated deflection, to account for the additional deflection due creep and shrinkage: KC = [2- 1. 2(ASS / East)] Note that for a symmetrically reinforced section KC reduces to the minimum value of 0. , being the effect of creep deflection alone. 6. 4. 2 OBSESS,BBS 8110 Deflections in BBS 5400 and BBS 8110 are calculated from integration of section curvatures. The cracking moment and curvature of cracked sections allows for a short term concrete tensile stress of 1 Amp, reducing to 0. 5 Amp in the long term. Shrinkage curvatures in BBS 8110 are determined from the free shrinkage strain, and the first moment of area of the reinforcement about the cracked or unchecked section, as appropriate. BBS 5400 uses a similar approach, but tabulates factors based on the compression and tension reinforcement ratios. 6. 4. 3 Recoded 2 and CUBE-PIP 1990 (MAC 90) The European codes also provide for calculation of deflections by integration of section curvatures, but provide a different expression for the stiffness of cracked sections: Shrinkage curvatures are assessed using a similar method to that given in BBS 8110: How to cite Concrete, Papers
Saturday, April 25, 2020
White Tigers White tigers are an endangered species and it is said that less than a dozen have been seen in India in about a hundred years. In fact no sightings have been reported since 1951. This may be caused by the fact that the Royal Bengal tiger population has dropped from 40,000 to 1,800 in the past ten years and as few as one in every 10,000 tigers is white (www.cranes.org/whitetiger). White tigers are neither albinos nor a special species. They differ from the normally colored tigers by having blue eyes, a pink nose, and creamy white fur with black stripes. If they were albinos they would have pink eyes and a lighter nose color. A tigers stripes are just like human fingerprints meaning that no two tigers have the same pattern of stripes. White tigers aren't necessarily born from other white tigers. White tigers get their color by a double recessive allele. A Bengal tiger with two normal alleles or one normal and one white allele is colored orange. Only a double dose of the mutant allele results in white tigers (www.cranes.org/whitetiger). In fact it is even normal to find normal colored cubs in a litter of white tigers (www.5tigers.org.com). The scientific name for a tiger is Panthera Tigris Tigris. It was initially felis tigris but the genus was changed to panthera because of the tiger's characteristic round pupils (www.geocities.com). The largest of the big cats may grow to over 12 feet long from its head to the tip of its tail, and weigh as much as 660 pounds (Cavendish,696). The white tiger has long been the focus of human fear and respect for years because of its powerful muscular body, loud roar, and frightening snarl revealing large, sharp teeth. Tigers spend all of their time alone which is very unusual (Thapar,115). Each tiger has its own territory, which it marks by scratching the barks of trees, spraying urine, and leaving piles of feces (Cavendish,696). Males are particularly aggressive toward other males and in some cases fights result in death of the weaker tiger. The territories may contain two or three female tigers but in most cases the area extends to over 40 square miles (DuTemple,15). Tigers are nocturnal animals and prefer to hunt their food under the cover of dense vegetation. They hunt by stealth, stalking their prey silently through the trees in a low crouch until it is within 66 feet (McClung107). The tiger then bounds forward, knocking its victim over with a swipe of its huge forepaw and pouncing on their victims back as it falls to the ground (Cavendish,696). Tigers never creep up on their prey in the same direction as the wind is blowing because the scent of the tiger will be carried to their victim (Morris,87). The tiger kills small prey by a single bite to the back of the neck with its large, powerful jaws and sharp teeth (Cavendish,696). It deals with larger prey by getting a suffocating grip on the throat. Once it has made a kill, the tiger usually drags the carcass under cover before beginning to feed (Morris,87). As the tiger eats it will make loud growling and snarling noises to warn the predators in the area (Thapar,52). If for some reason the tige r has to leave its dinner before it is done eating it will cover the body with twigs and leaves before leaving (Morris,88). Tigers need to eat about 40 pounds of meat a day and will commonly cover up to 12 miles every night in search of their prey (McClung,150). Tigers usually eat deer, wild pigs, wild cattle, young rhinos, baby elephants, domestic animals at near by farms, and occasionally leopards (Morris,88). Once in a while a tiger might eat a human but this is much less common than you would think, because tigers are very shy of human beings and try to stay away from them (Morris,88). Once tigers have reached three or fours years old they are old enough to breed. Tigers breed every two to three years and the female is the one that goes looking for a mate (McClung,212). The females will go around leaving their scents on bushes or rocks and wait for interested