Thursday, May 21, 2020

The Interpretation Of Cultures By Clifford Geertz

In The Interpretation of Cultures, Clifford Geertz neatly collects many of the essays written throughout his academic career. From field research in Indonesia and Morocco to highly theoretical pieces, Geertz contributed a massive amount of work to the study of anthropology, including a new definition of religion, which has been subjected to much admiration and scrutiny. In this essay, I will be discussing some of Geertz’s terminology, cockfighting’s relationship with religion, Asad’s enlightening critique, and webs of significance. For starters, I will say that I actually read another one of Geertz’s pieces, Islam Observed, a year ago, and while I liked some of his ideas, I interpreted his tone and word choices at times as a tad bit condescending. I found â€Å"Religion as a Cultural System† to be the same as well in terms of rubbing me the wrong way. Phrases like â€Å"infantile fairy tale worlds† (103) or â€Å"bizarre perspective embodied in dreams and hallucinations (110)† are just a couple of things he says that seem strange and off-putting. Nevertheless, I will not concentrate too much on these words, for I found some other words more problematic and confusing. If you happen to know Geertz’s personality, I would be interested to hear what he was like. Anyways, while reading this particular Geertz’s essay, I was impressed by how detailed Geertz is in defining not only religion but most of the other words he associates with religion like symbol, mood, motivation, andShow MoreRelatedClifford Geertz - Interpretive Anthropology2636 Words   |  11 PagesSocial Anthropology Essay. How would you summarize Clifford Geertz’s contribution to the field of anthropology? Clifford Geertz I have chosen this essay on Geertz, as the information I received in class I found interesting and wanted to elaborate on the knowledge I already had. In this essay, I will be discussing Geertz’s contributions to anthropology, and what I have interpreted these contributions as myself. When looking at Geertz’s ideas and theories in Anthropology, some of these ideas andRead MoreSymbolic Interactionism and Geertz Deep Play - an Integration1448 Words   |  6 PagesSymbolic Interactionism and Geertz’ Deep Play Symbolic interaction, one of the three main perspectives of the social sciences of Anthropology and Sociology, was thought to be first conceived by Max Weber and George Herbert Mead as they both emphasized the subjective meaning of human behavior, the social process, and the humanistic way of viewing of Anthropology and Sociology. As human behavior and socialization were observed, Mead discovered that behavior may be either overt, meaning observableRead MoreAnthropologists Should Put More Emphasis On Individual Differences And Meanings That Are Not Shared1257 Words   |  6 Pagesshared. Culture is composed of individuals. We know that the individual is an important part of any culture because cultures are not uniform – they differ from one another and they differ from themselves over time. This difference is a product of the inherent uniqueness of the individuals who compose a culture and no science that claims to â€Å"study culture† could be considered a true science if it ignored the building blocks of the subject it is studying. Clifford Geertz shares his views on culture in hisRead MoreThe Revival of Indigenous Movements1862 Words   |  7 Pagesspirits, sacred mountains an invisible sky and water gods. Most modernist thinkers have rejected such beliefs as primitive, backward and unscientific, a relic of the past, although relativists and cultural realists like Clifford Geertz have always been able to accept cultures and ways of life on their own terms rather than trying to fit them into rigid laws and frameworks of social and economic development. Even Durkheim and Marx, who regarded urban, industrial capitalism as producing a societyRead More Different Cultures, Different Essay957 Words   |  4 Pages Every society and culture has different ways of interpreting and defining occurrences by the way their own culture or society functions. â€Å"A society’s culture, consists of whatever it is one has to know or believe in order to operate in a manner acceptable to its members†(Geertz 242). The rituals, customs, ethics and morals that are attributed to the cultures have caused these differences. To understand how the people of one culture interpret a situation or event, one must evaluate the attributesRead MoreSimilarities In The Opposition. Ideas Do Not Prove Their909 Words   |  4 Pageswithstand the challenge of being questioned. On the surface, professor Craig Martin and anthropologist Clifford Geertz approach analyzing religion with opposing views. Martin dismisses definitions of religion claiming that no definition can encompass the practical use of the word and instead provides a step by step approach to explaining beliefs and actions in the perspective of a meth odological atheist. Geertz, however, provides a working definition broken into a five-part model to make it a useful toolRead MoreThose Kind Of Discriminations Are What Taylor Callsstrong Evaluation1727 Words   |  7 Pagesthem†; fifthly and lastly, â€Å"that these articulations, which we can think of as interpretations, require language†. These five points together constitute his thesis ‘human beings are self-interpreting animals’. The thesis means not only that human beings own â€Å"some compulsive tendency to form reflexive views of himself [or herself], but rather as he [or she] is, he [or she] is always partly constituted by self-interpretation, that is, by his [her] understanding of the imports which impinge on him [her]†Read MoreAnalysis Of Meanings And Concepts Of Culture Essay1422 Words   |  6 PagesThe analysis of meanings and concepts of culture The objective of this essay is to present and analyse the main definitions of the word culture through different social and historical processes, starting from the ancient times to the most modern times. Starting from the etymology of the word, the term culture derives from the latin word colà ¨re, that means to farm the land, and only after, this meaning was extended to the term cultus, that stands for a literate man, and there is a connectionRead MoreSimilarities And Differences Between The Human Mind And Science, History, And Literature1486 Words   |  6 Pageslaunch assumptions about knowledge and culture; science, after all, isn’t primary or even essential in these processes. The human mind, however, was. The traditional studies of literature, psychology, and history are in some important ways closer to the source of human knowledge in this model laid out by Sapir and Whorf. Of course, the individual human mind is impossible to enter and so expressions of these ideas, rather than the ideas themselve,s are â€Å"culture† and important. These ideas were hugelyRead MoreClifford Geertz Religion As A Cultural System Summary1495 Words   |  6 PagesClifford Gee rtz, in his essay â€Å"Religion as a Cultural System†, presents what he considers to be the definition of religion. According to him, religion is about symbols and people use these symbols as a guide for their view of the world and how they should behave in that world. Religion, states Geertz is â€Å"a system of symbols which acts to establish powerful, pervasive, and long-lasting moods and motivations in men by formulating conceptions of a general order of existence and clothing these conceptions

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Essay about Canadas Geography and History Have Shaped...

Canada’s geography and historic development have shaped its current political context. Do you agree or disagree? Do you think that this has made Canada a more (or less) difficult place to govern? Please explain. Canada’s natural resources are distributed and differ along the territory. Therefore there is an uneven distribution of wealth because of the different economic sectors, which fluctuate the prosperity of the territory. Politics focus on the wealthy territories more than others since the transformation of natural resources represent the biggest part of Canada’s GDP which means a better economy. Canada’s Natural Resources Canada’s geography is very diverse and the location of natural resources and the density of population†¦show more content†¦This has become a huge political debate whether the CWB is that effective or each farmer should be free to make their own business decisions. There are other grains like canola that have a higher market value. For some farmers producing less quantity but receiving a higher value may be more attractive. (torontosun.com 2012) The issue here is how to manage the trade of natural resources and who is ultimately responsible for this trade. Is the board being efficient or farmers need their freedom to make these decisions? Some farmers are happy with the government having the control over them. Friends of the Canadian Wheat Board for example an organization of farmers are fully in favor of a monopoly. Recently, the CWB announced they will give up to their power and will leave the farmers with the freedom to sell to it to whoever they wanted. For some t his represents better prices and opportunities and for others a violation to the Canadian Wheat Board Act by repealing the act without a vote. (www.pembinatoday.ca 2012). This is a clear example of how geography has a huge impact in Canadian politics. Different areas have different economic sectors making the government issues totally different, shaping them at the same time. The political struggle continues as it seems neither way regulation nor deregulation of wheat seems to have a perfectly working system. DeregulationShow MoreRelatedCourse outline GEO7933080 Words   |  13 Pages GEO 793: The Geography of Toronto- Winter 2015 Course Instructor Valentina Capurri JOR 601 Ext. 3120 vcapurri@ryerson.ca Office Hours: Monday 15:00 to 17:30 Lectures: Sec. 1: Mon. 13:00 to 15:00 DSQ2, Wed. 11:00 to 12:00 LIB072 Sec. 2: Mon. 11:00 to 13:00 EPH229; Wen. 9:00 to 10:00 ENG101 Sec. 3: Mon. 18:00 to 21:00 TRS2166 Course Exclusions: This is an Upper Level Liberal Studies. The course is not available to students in the Geographic Analysis ProgramRead MoreSoft Power6538 Words   |  27 Pages12/08/2008 12:33 Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of JSTORs Terms and Conditions of Use, available at http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp. JSTORs Terms and Conditions of Use provides, in part, that unless you have obtained prior permission, you may not download an entire issue of a journal or multiple copies of articles, and you may use content in the JSTOR archive only for your personal, non-commercial use. Please contact the publisher regarding any furtherRead MoreOne Significant Change That Has Occurred in the World Between 1900 and 2005. Explain the Impact This Change Has Made on Our Lives and Why It Is an Important Change.163893 Words   |  656 PagesBrier, and Roy Rosenzweig Also in this series: Paula Hamilton and Linda Shopes, eds., Oral History and Public Memories Tiffany Ruby Patterson, Zora Neale Hurston and a History of Southern Life Lisa M. Fine, The Story of Reo Joe: Work, Kin, and Community in Autotown, U.S.A. Van Gosse and Richard Moser, eds., The World the Sixties Made: Politics and Culture in Recent America Joanne Meyerowitz, ed., History and September 11th John McMillian and Paul Buhle, eds., The New Left Revisited David MRead MoreExploring Corporate Strategy - Case164366 Words   |  658 Pages597 CASE STUDIES ECS8C_C01.qxd 22/10/2007 11:54 Page 598 ECS8C_C01.qxd 22/10/2007 11:54 Page 599 Guide to using the case studies The main text of this book includes 87 short illustrations and 15 case examples which have been chosen to enlarge speciï ¬ c issues in the text and/or provide practical examples of how business and public sector organisations are managing strategic issues. The case studies which follow allow the reader to extend this linking of theory and practiceRead MoreManaging Information Technology (7th Edition)239873 Words   |  960 PagesRiver, New Jersey 07458. Many of the designations by manufacturers and sellers to distinguish their products are claimed as trademarks. Where those designations appear in this book, and the publisher was aware of a trademark claim, the designations have been printed in initial caps or all caps. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Managing information technology / Carol V. Brown . . . [et al.]. — 7th ed. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN-13: 978-0-13-214632-6Read MoreFundamentals of Hrm263904 Words   |  1056 PagesKNOW?: Chief Diversity Officer 11 How Diversity Affects HRM 11 WORKPLACE ISSUES: Diversity Awareness 12 What Is a Work/Life Balance? 12 DID YOU KNOW?: Looking at the Future of HRM 13 DID YOU KNOW?: International Diversity 14 The Labor Supply 14 Do We Have a Shortage of Skilled Labor? 14 Why Do Organizations Lay Off Employees during Shortages? 15 How Do Organizations Balance Labor Supply? 15 Issues Contingent Workers Create for HRM 16 Continuous Improvement Programs 18 Work Process Engineering 19 How

Concrete Free Essays

The crack widths predicted by the different codes have been calculated for a range of varying parameters: Varying tension reinforcement stress (Figure 9) Varying cover (Figure 10) Varying bar spacing with constant reinforcement area and stress. (Figure 1 1) Varying bar spacing with constant reinforcement area and maximum stress to AS 3600. Figure 12) BBS 5400 results have been plotted using a Ms / MGM ratio of 0. We will write a custom essay sample on Concrete or any similar topic only for you Order Now 1 and 1. All results have used long term values where available. Larger versions of these graphs may be found on the Powering presentation associated with this paper. The following observations can be made from the graph results: The BBS 5400 results using the two different load ratios gave substantially different results, with the higher ratio giving increased crack widths. The BBS 8110 results were either approximately centrally placed between the two BBS 5400 results, or close to the lower values. The Recoded 2 results were usually reasonably close to the mean of the other results. The CUBE-Flip-1990 results were consistently the lowest for high steel stresses and high concrete cover values. Results with varying spacing were close to Recoded 2 results. The IAC 318 results were consistently the highest, being close to and slightly higher than the upper bound BBS 5400 values. All crack widths increased approximately linearly with increasing steel stress Crack widths increased with increasing cover, with Recoded 2 reaching a constant value at 70 mm cover, and the CUBE-PIP code at 35 mm cover. The other codes continued to increase more than linearly up to 100 mm cover. All codes predicted increasing crack width with increasing bar spacing and constant reinforcement area steel stress. Figure 9: Varying tension reinforcement stress Figure 10: Varying cover Figure 11: Varying bar spacing with constant reinforcement area and stress Figure 12: Varying bar spacing with constant reinforcement area and maximum stress to AS 3600. When the steel stress was adjusted to the maximum allowable under AS 3600 (I. E. Reduced for increasing bar spacing and increasing bar diameter) the predicted crack widths were reasonably uniform in the spacing range 50 to 200 mm, then tended to reduce with greater spacing. DEFLECTION The main differences in approach to the calculation of deflections are summarized low: Australian and American codes are based on the Brannon equation, using a uniform average effective stiffness value. Australian codes allow for loss of tension stiffening through a reduction of the cracking moment related to the free concrete shrinkage. Allowance for shrinkage curvature in the Australian codes is simplified and will underestimate curvature in symmetrically reinforced sections. British codes allow only a low tension value for cracked sections, which is further reduced for long term deflections European codes adopt an intermediate approach for cracked sections, tit an allowance for loss of tension stiffening. British and European code provisions for shrinkage curvature are essentially the same Effective stiffness, calculated according to AS 3600, Recoded 2, BBS 5400, and BBS 8110, and with no tension stiffening, is plotted against bending moment for the same concrete section used in the crack width analysis. Figure 13 shows results with no shrinkage, and Figure 14 with a shrinkage of 300 Microscopic. RESEARCH ABOUT THE METHODS USED IN DIFFERENCE CONCRETE STANDARDS AS 3600 limits the maximum reinforcement stress under serviceability loads to a axiom value dependent on either the bar diameter or the bar spacing, whichever gives the greater stress. AS 5100 has the same limits, with an additional requirement to check for lower limits under permanent loads for elements in exposure classifications 82, C or U. Recoded 2 limits stresses in essentially the same way, except that the limits are presented as maximum bar spacing or diameter for a specified stress, rather than vice versa. The Recoded 2 limits are related to 3 different values of nominal crack width, 0. 2 mm, 0. 3 mm or 0. 4 mm, under pseudo-static loading. The applicable crack Edith depends on the exposure classification and type of member. Code Provisions for Crack Width Limits As well as stress limits, Recoded 2 has detailed provisions for the calculation of design crack widths, which are summarized below: The basic formula for crack width: crack spacing x (mean steel strain – mean concrete strain) makes no allowance for variation in crack width between the level of the reinforcement and the surface of the concrete, however the crack spacing is mainly related to the cover depth, and the crack width is directly proportional to crack spacing, so the depth of cover has a significant effect on crack widths. The expression for Seems – ECMA limits the effect of tension stiffening to 40% of the steel strain. For long term effects the tension stiffening coefficient is reduced by 1/3, from 0. 6 to 0. 4. The British concrete design codes specify a design crack width at the surface of the concrete as follows: The basic approach is similar to Recoded 2, except that the crack width is projected from the reinforcement level to the concrete surface. The main differences between BBS 5400 and BBS 8110 are: BBS 5400 includes a factor to reduce the effect of tension stiffening, depending on the ratio of live load moment to dead load moment (Ms / MGM). The effect of this is to reduce tension stiffening effects to zero for a load ratio of 1 or greater. The tension stiffening coefficients are differently formulated. The IAC requirements are based on stress limits derived from the Surgery-Lutz equation: The IAC 318 equation makes no allowance for tension stiffening, and predicts crack width at the upper bound of those studied in this paper. Results are usually similar to those from the BBS 5400 equation using a Ms / MGM ratio of 1 . AS 3600, AS 5100, and IAC 318 AS 3600 and AS 5100 provisions for â€Å"simplified† calculation of deflections are identical other than a typographical error in AS 5100), and are both based on the â€Å"Brannon† equation, which is also used in IAC 318. The equation in IAC 318 is differently formulated, but will give identical results for the same cracking moment and section stiffness values. The AS 3600 version of the equation is shown below: left is calculated for the maximum moment section, and applied along the full length of the member being analyses. The calculation of the cracking moment in the Australian codes (but not IAC 318) includes an allowance for the shrinkage induced tensile stress in the unchecked section, which contributes to loss of tension stiffening: AS 3600 and AS 5100 provide a factor KC , applied to the calculated deflection, to account for the additional deflection due creep and shrinkage: KC = [2- 1. 2(ASS / East)] Note that for a symmetrically reinforced section KC reduces to the minimum value of 0. , being the effect of creep deflection alone. 6. 4. 2 OBSESS,BBS 8110 Deflections in BBS 5400 and BBS 8110 are calculated from integration of section curvatures. The cracking moment and curvature of cracked sections allows for a short term concrete tensile stress of 1 Amp, reducing to 0. 5 Amp in the long term. Shrinkage curvatures in BBS 8110 are determined from the free shrinkage strain, and the first moment of area of the reinforcement about the cracked or unchecked section, as appropriate. BBS 5400 uses a similar approach, but tabulates factors based on the compression and tension reinforcement ratios. 6. 4. 3 Recoded 2 and CUBE-PIP 1990 (MAC 90) The European codes also provide for calculation of deflections by integration of section curvatures, but provide a different expression for the stiffness of cracked sections: Shrinkage curvatures are assessed using a similar method to that given in BBS 8110: How to cite Concrete, Papers

Saturday, April 25, 2020

White Tigers Essays (1682 words) - Tigers, Bengal Tiger, White Tiger

White Tigers White tigers are an endangered species and it is said that less than a dozen have been seen in India in about a hundred years. In fact no sightings have been reported since 1951. This may be caused by the fact that the Royal Bengal tiger population has dropped from 40,000 to 1,800 in the past ten years and as few as one in every 10,000 tigers is white (www.cranes.org/whitetiger). White tigers are neither albinos nor a special species. They differ from the normally colored tigers by having blue eyes, a pink nose, and creamy white fur with black stripes. If they were albinos they would have pink eyes and a lighter nose color. A tigers stripes are just like human fingerprints meaning that no two tigers have the same pattern of stripes. White tigers aren't necessarily born from other white tigers. White tigers get their color by a double recessive allele. A Bengal tiger with two normal alleles or one normal and one white allele is colored orange. Only a double dose of the mutant allele results in white tigers (www.cranes.org/whitetiger). In fact it is even normal to find normal colored cubs in a litter of white tigers (www.5tigers.org.com). The scientific name for a tiger is Panthera Tigris Tigris. It was initially felis tigris but the genus was changed to panthera because of the tiger's characteristic round pupils (www.geocities.com). The largest of the big cats may grow to over 12 feet long from its head to the tip of its tail, and weigh as much as 660 pounds (Cavendish,696). The white tiger has long been the focus of human fear and respect for years because of its powerful muscular body, loud roar, and frightening snarl revealing large, sharp teeth. Tigers spend all of their time alone which is very unusual (Thapar,115). Each tiger has its own territory, which it marks by scratching the barks of trees, spraying urine, and leaving piles of feces (Cavendish,696). Males are particularly aggressive toward other males and in some cases fights result in death of the weaker tiger. The territories may contain two or three female tigers but in most cases the area extends to over 40 square miles (DuTemple,15). Tigers are nocturnal animals and prefer to hunt their food under the cover of dense vegetation. They hunt by stealth, stalking their prey silently through the trees in a low crouch until it is within 66 feet (McClung107). The tiger then bounds forward, knocking its victim over with a swipe of its huge forepaw and pouncing on their victims back as it falls to the ground (Cavendish,696). Tigers never creep up on their prey in the same direction as the wind is blowing because the scent of the tiger will be carried to their victim (Morris,87). The tiger kills small prey by a single bite to the back of the neck with its large, powerful jaws and sharp teeth (Cavendish,696). It deals with larger prey by getting a suffocating grip on the throat. Once it has made a kill, the tiger usually drags the carcass under cover before beginning to feed (Morris,87). As the tiger eats it will make loud growling and snarling noises to warn the predators in the area (Thapar,52). If for some reason the tige r has to leave its dinner before it is done eating it will cover the body with twigs and leaves before leaving (Morris,88). Tigers need to eat about 40 pounds of meat a day and will commonly cover up to 12 miles every night in search of their prey (McClung,150). Tigers usually eat deer, wild pigs, wild cattle, young rhinos, baby elephants, domestic animals at near by farms, and occasionally leopards (Morris,88). Once in a while a tiger might eat a human but this is much less common than you would think, because tigers are very shy of human beings and try to stay away from them (Morris,88). Once tigers have reached three or fours years old they are old enough to breed. Tigers breed every two to three years and the female is the one that goes looking for a mate (McClung,212). The females will go around leaving their scents on bushes or rocks and wait for interested

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

Everything Your Need to Know About Irony

Everything Your Need to Know About Irony Hearkening back to the infamous Alanis Morissette song, Ironic, its first most important to recognize that rain on your wedding day isnt ironic. Winning the lottery and then dying the next day is also not ironic. Both are just instances of bad luck.One reason why irony is often confused with bad luck is because they can be used to describe similar situations- but the words themselves are the difference between simple bad luck and actual ironic turn of events. For example, if you are on your way to an important meeting that could mean a significant job raise but end up being late and therefore not receiving the raise- thats bad luck. However, if the reason you were late is because you were busy bragging about how youre always on time for anything important- thats ironic.Its easy to get confused about what irony means and how to correctly identify it. Not only are there multiple types of irony, but its use is not meant to be pointed out directly to the reader. In fact, Bob Harris, in h is New York Times article, Isnt It Ironic? Probably Not, quotes the Times style book with the following:[The use] of irony and ironically, to mean an incongruous turn of events, is trite. Not every coincidence, curiosity, oddity and paradox is an irony, even loosely. And where irony does exist, sophisticated writing counts on the reader to recognize it.Bob Harris in New York TimesSo, lets take a look at what irony is, the different types of it, and some examples of it used correctly in literature and life.Verbal ironyWhen you say one thing and mean another, that is verbal irony. Think of it as the times in which the words you use contradict what is expected. In these cases, there are underlying meanings that contrast with the literal meaning of what you intend to communicate. Most importantly, it takes a certain level of intelligence on behalf of the audience to understand when irony is occurring. As a writer, you cant point out if something is ironic- it must be understood by the a udience to have full effect.Sarcasm, exaggeration/overstatement, and understatement are all types of verbal irony. However, not all verbal irony is sarcastic. Think of sarcasm as having a more biting, derogatory undertone.ExamplesAn example of verbal irony can be found in Johnathan Swifts essay, A Modest Proposal.[†¦] whoever could find out a fair, cheap, and easy method of making these children sound, useful members of the commonwealth, would deserve so well of the public as to have his statue set up for a preserver of the nation.I have been assured by a very knowing American of my acquaintance in London, that a young healthy child well nursed is at a year old a most delicious, nourishing, and wholesome food, whether stewed, roasted, baked, or boiled; and I make no doubt that it will equally serve in a fricassee or a ragout.A Modest Proposal by Jonathan SwiftAnother example would be a character who has been in an awful car wreck and suffered major physical injury being asked h ow they are feeling, only to respond Ive never felt better!Situational ironySituational irony is when something occurs that is incongruous with what is expected to occur. Photo by Judeus Samson on Unsplash.Situational irony is when a situation occurs that is ironic. Specifically, it is when something occurs that is incongruous with what is expected to occur. Whereas verbal irony requires a speaker to evoke irony through their words, situational irony can be recognized by a reader without any words spoken.Situational irony, at its core, shows the differences between reality and expectations, and can be an excellent literary device to hone in on this incongruency. It reinforces the idea that in many ways, control is an illusion.ExamplesOne example of situational irony in literature is the plot of The Gift of the Magi, a short story by O. Henry. The story is of two lovers who are poor but want to buy their beloved a Christmas gift to show the depths of their affection. Della, the young wife, sells her hair to buy a fob chain for her husbands most precious possession- a pocket watch.However, unknown to Della, her husband, Jim, has sold his pocket watch to buy her a gift- ornamental combs for her long hair. As the gifts are exchanged, the couple realizes that each of their gifts is now useless. Jim no longer has a pocket watch to use with his wifes gift, and Della no longer has long hair that can be put into the ornamental combs Jim bought for her.Another example is the poem, Messy Room, by Shel Silverstein. In it, the narrator begins by berating the occupant of a room that has been left in disarray. By the end of the poem, however, the narrator recognizes it as being his own room.Whosever room this is should be ashamed!His underwear is hanging on the lamp.His raincoat is there in the overstuffed chair,And the chair is becoming quite mucky and damp.His workbook is wedged in the window,His sweaters been thrown on the floor.His scarf and one ski are beneath the TV,An d his pants have been carelessly hung on the door.His books are all jammed in the closet,His vest has been left in the hall.A lizard named Ed is asleep in his bed,And his smelly old sock has been stuck to the wall.Whosever room this is should be ashamed!Donald or Robert or Willie or–Huh? You say its mine? Oh, dear,I knew it looked familiar!A non-literary example of situational irony would be a party that is planned indoors to avoid being out in the heat of summer. However, on the day of the party, the outdoor temperatures drop to a comfortable 70 degrees with a soft breeze blowing, while the air conditioning on the inside breaks, leaving the party room hot and stuffy with no windows to open.Dramatic ironyDramatic irony occurs in fictional or dramatic works and is a device the writer uses to allow the audience to know crucial information that the character does not know. According to Literarydevices.net:By allowing the audience to know important facts ahead of the leading char acters, dramatic irony puts the audience and readers above the characters, and also encourages them to anticipate, hope, and fear the moment when a character would learn the truth behind events and situations of the story.More often, this irony occurs in tragedies, where readers are led to sympathize with leading characters Thus, this irony emphasizes the fatality of incomplete understanding on honest and innocent people, and demonstrates the painful consequences of misunderstandings.Literarydevices.netExampleOne of the most famous examples of dramatic irony in fiction is in William Shakespeares Romeo and Juliet. The moment that Romeo ingests the poison, thinking his beloved Juliet to be dead, the audience knows that Juliet is very much alive. The letter announcing her plans to fake her own death never arrived to Romeo, thus keeping him from knowing the truth while the audience is aware of it.Another example of Shakespeares extensive use of dramatic irony occurs in Macbeth, when Dun can announces his trust for Macbeth while being unaware of the witches prophecy. In that prophecy, which the audience knows, it is revealed that Macbeth will be king and would kill Duncan.Cosmic ironyWhile not a part of the more well-known types of irony (verbal, situational, and dramatic), cosmic irony is a type of irony youll often find in philosophical discussions. It is a subtype of situational irony and is also known as the Irony of fate. In essence, it is the belief that the fates (or God/gods) enjoy toying with humanity, either for their own amusement or for some greater experiment.Cosmic irony is the belief that the fates (or gods) enjoy toying with humanity. Photo by NASA on Unsplash.ExamplesA literary example of cosmic irony is found in Thomas Hardys Tess of the dUrbervilles. In this work, the main character, who is innocent, loses everything to tragedy. Eventually, she dies, and Hardy ends the novel with the words: Justice was done, and the President of the Immortals (in the Aeschylean phrase) had ended his sport with Tess.Historical ironyHistorical irony is when an event occurs that is in juxtaposition to a claim or situation that contradicts it.ExamplesOtto Lilienthal, who created the flying glider, once stated: No one can realize how substantial the air is, until he feels its supporting power beneath him. It inspires confidence at once. However, the historical irony comes from the fact that Lilienthal was later killed during one of his flying experiments when the air was, in fact, not substantial enough to keep him from falling.Margaret Thatcher, the first female prime minister of the UK, stated in 1973 that she didnt believe there would be a woman prime minister in her lifetime.Using irony in your writingIrony is a fantastic device at any writers disposal to add a sense of wonder, fate, or even comedy to their story. Using it to juxtapose that which is expected versus reality not only adds depth to your writing but its also fun for your reader t o recognize it when it occurs.

Sunday, March 1, 2020

How to Start a College Essay Perfectly

How to Start a College Essay Perfectly SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips If you’ve been sitting in front of a blank screen, unsure of exactly how to start a personal statement for college, then believe me- I feel your pain. A great college essay introduction is key to making your essay stand out, so there’s a lot of pressure to get it right. Luckily, being able to craft the perfect beginning for your admissions essay is just like many other writing skills- something you can get better at with practice and by learning from examples. In this article, I’ll walk you through exactly how to start a college essay. We'll cover what makes a great personal statement introduction and how the first part of your essay should be structured. We'll also look at several great examples of essay beginnings and explain why they work, how they work, and what you can learn from them. What Is the College Essay Introduction For? Before we talk about how to start a college essay, let's discuss the role of the introduction. Just as your college essay is your chance to introduce yourself to the admissions office of your target college, your essay's beginning is your chance to introduce your writing. Wait, Back Up- Why Do Colleges Want Personal Statements? In general, college essays make it easier to get to know the parts of you not in your transcript- these include your personality, outlook on life, passions, and experiences. You're not writing for yourself but for a very specific kind of reader. Picture it: your audience is an admissions officer who has read thousands and thousands of essays. This person is disposed to be friendly and curious, but if she hasn’t already seen it all she's probably seen a good portion of it. Your essay's job is to entertain and impress this person, and to make you memorable so you don't merely blend into the sea of other personal statements. Like all attempts at charm, you must be slightly bold and out of the ordinary- but you must also stay away from crossing the line into offensiveness or bad taste. What Role Does the Introduction Play in a College Essay? The personal statement introduction is basically the wriggly worm that baits the hook to catch your reader. It's vital to grab attention from the get-go- the more awake and eager your audience is, the more likely it is that what you say will really land. How do you go about crafting an introduction that successfully hooks your reader? Let’s talk about how to structure the beginning of your college essay. Teenagers hard at work on their college applications. How to Structure a Personal Statement Introduction To see how the introduction fits into an essay, let's look at the big structural picture first and then zoom in. College Essay Structure Overview Even though they’re called essays, personal statements are really more like a mix of a short story and a philosophy or psychology class that's all about you. Usually, how this translates is that you start with a really good (and very short) story about something arresting, unusual, or important that happened to you. This is not to say that the story has to be about something important or unusual in the grand scheme of things- it just has to be a moment that stands out to you as defining in some way, or an explanation of why you are the way you are. You then pivot to an explanation of why this story is an accurate illustration of one of your core qualities, values, or beliefs. The story typically comes in the first half of the essay, and the insightful explanation comes second - but, of course, all rules were made to be broken, and some great essays flip this more traditional order. College Essay Introduction Components Now, let’s zero in on the first part of the college essay. What are the ingredients of a great personal statement introduction? I'll list them here and then dissect them one by one in the next section: A killer first sentence: This hook grabs your readers' attention and whets their appetite for your story. A vivid, detailed story that illustrates your eventual insight: To make up for how short your story will be, you must insert effective sensory information to immerse the reader. An insightful pivot toward the greater point you're making in your essay: This vital piece of the essay connects the short story part to the part where you explain what the experience has taught you about yourself, how you've matured, and how it has ultimately shaped you as a person. You've got your reader's attention when you see its furry ears extended †¦ No, wait. Squirrel. You've got your squirrel's attention. Want to write the perfect college application essay? Get professional help from PrepScholar. Your dedicated PrepScholar Admissions counselor will craft your perfect college essay, from the ground up. We'll learn your background and interests, brainstorm essay topics, and walk you through the essay drafting process, step-by-step. At the end, you'll have a unique essay that you'll proudly submit to your top choice colleges. Don't leave your college application to chance. Find out more about PrepScholar Admissions now: How to Write a College Essay Introduction Here’s a weird secret that’s true for most written work: just because it'll end up at the beginning doesn’t mean you have to write it first. For example, in this case, you can’t know what your killer first sentence will be until you’ve figured out the following details: The story you want to tell The point you want that story to make The trait/maturity level/background about you that your essay will reveal So my suggestion is to work in reverse order! Writing your essay will be much easier if you can figure out the entirety of it first and then go back and work out exactly how it should start. This means that before you can craft your ideal first sentence, the way the short story experience of your life will play out on the page, and the perfect pivoting moment that transitions from your story to your insight, you must work out a general idea about which life event you will share and what you expect that life event to demonstrate to the reader about you and the kind of person you are. If you're having trouble coming up with a topic, check out our guide on brainstorming college essay ideas. It might also be helpful to read our guides to specific application essays, such as picking your best Common App prompt and writing a perfect University of California personal statement. In the next sections of this article, I'll talk about how to work backwards on the introduction, moving from bigger to smaller elements: starting with the first section of the essay in general and then honing your pivot sentence and your first sentence. Don't get too excited about working in reverse- not all activities are safe to do backwards. (Jackie/Flickr) How to Write the First Section of Your College Essay In a 500-word essay, this section will take up about the first half of the essay and will mostly consist of a brief story that illuminates a key experience, an important character trait, a moment of transition or transformation, or a step toward maturity. Once you've figured out your topic and zeroed in on the experience you want to highlight in the beginning of your essay, here are 2 great approaches to making it into a story: Talking it out, storyteller style (while recording yourself): Imagine that you're sitting with a group of people at a campfire, or that you're stuck on a long flight sitting next to someone you want to befriend. Now tell that story. What does someone who doesn’t know you need to know in order for the story to make sense? What details do you need to provide to put them in the story with you? What background information do they need in order to understand the stakes or importance of the story? Record yourself telling your story to friends and then chatting about it: What do they need clarified? What questions do they have? Which parts of your story didn’t make sense or follow logically for them? Do they want to know more, or less? Is part of your story interesting to them but not interesting to you? Is a piece of your story secretly boring, even though you think it’s interesting? Later, as you listen to the recorded story to try to get a sense of how to write it, you can also get a sense of the tone with which you want to tell your story. Are you being funny as you talk? Sad? Trying to shock, surprise, or astound your audience? The way you most naturally tell your story is the way you should write it. After you've done this storyteller exercise, write down the salient points of what you learned. What is the story your essay will tell? What is the point about your life, point of view, or personality it will make? What tone will you tell it with? Sketch out a detailed outline so that you can start filling in the pieces as we work through how to write the introductory sections. Baron Munchausen didn't know whether to tell his story sad that his horse had been cut in half, or delighted by knowing what would happen if half a horse drank from a fountain. How to Write the First Sentence of Your College Essay In general, your essay's first sentence should be either a mini-cliffhanger that sets up a situation the reader would like to see resolved, or really lush scene-setting that situates your audience in a place and time they can readily visualize. The former builds expectations and evokes curiosity, and the latter stimulates the imagination and creates a connection with the author. In both cases, you hit your goal of greater reader engagement. Now, I’m going to show you how these principles work for all types of first sentences, whether in college essays or in famous works of fiction. First Sentence Idea 1: Line of Quoted Direct Speech "Mum, I'm gay." (Ahmad Ashraf '17 for Connecticut College) The experience of coming out is raw and emotional, and the issue of LGBTQ rights is an important facet of modern life. This three-word sentence immediately sums up an enormous background of the personal and political. "You can handle it, Matt," said Mr. Wolf, my fourth-grade band teacher, as he lifted the heavy tuba and put it into my arms. (Matt Coppo ’07 for Hamilton College) This sentence conjures up a funny image- we can immediately picture the larger adult standing next to a little kid holding a giant tuba. It also does a little play on words: "handle it" can refer to both the literal tuba Matt is being asked to hold and the figurative stress of playing the instrument. First Sentence Idea 2: Punchy Short Sentence With One Grabby Detail I live alone- I always have since elementary school. (Kevin Zevallos '16 for Connecticut College) This opener definitely makes us want to know more. Why was he alone? Where were the protective grown-ups who surround most kids? How on earth could a little kid of 8-10 years old survive on his own? I have old hands. (First line from a student in Stanford’s class of 2012) There’s nothing but questions here. What are "old" hands? Are they old-looking? Arthritic? How has having these hands affected the author? There was no possibility of taking a walk that day. (Charlotte Bronte, Jane Eyre) There’s immediately a feeling of disappointment and the stifled desire for action here. Who wanted to go for a walk? And why was this person being prevented from going? First Sentence Idea 3: Lyrical, Adjective-Rich Description of a Setting We met for lunch at El Burrito Mexicano, a tiny Mexican lunch counter under the Red Line "El" tracks. (Ted Mullin ’06 for Carleton College) Look at how much specificity this sentence packs in less than 20 words. Each noun and adjective is chosen for its ability to convey yet another detail. "Tiny" instead of "small" gives readers a sense of being uncomfortably close to other people and sitting at tables that don't quite have enough room for the plates. "Counter" instead of "restaurant" lets us immediately picture this work surface, the server standing behind it, and the general atmosphere. "Under the tracks" is a location deeply associated with being run down, borderline seedy, and maybe even dangerous. Maybe it's because I live in Rhinelander, Wisconsin, where Brett Favre draws more of a crowd on Sunday than any religious service, cheese is a staple food, it's sub-zero during global warming, current "fashions" come three years after they've hit it big with the rest of the world, and where all children by the age of ten can use a 12-gauge like it's their job. (Riley Smith '12 for Hamilton College) This sentence manages to hit every stereotype about Wisconsin held by outsiders- football, cheese, polar winters, backwardness, and guns- and this piling on gives us a good sense of place while also creating enough hyperbole to be funny. At the same time, the sentence raises the tantalizing question: maybe what is because of Wisconsin? High, high above the North Pole, on the first day of 1969, two professors of English Literature approached each other at a combined velocity of 1200 miles per hour. (David Lodge, Changing Places) This sentence is structured in the highly specific style of a math problem, which makes it funny. However, at the heart of this sentence lies a mystery that grabs the reader's interest: why on earth would these two people be doing this? First Sentence Idea 4: Counterintuitive Statement To avoid falling into generalities with this one, make sure you're really creating an argument or debate with your counterintuitive sentence. If no one would argue with what you've said, then you aren't making an argument. ("The world is a wonderful place" and "Life is worth living" don't make the cut.) If string theory is really true, then the entire world is made up of strings, and I cannot tie a single one. (Joanna ’18 for Johns Hopkins University) There’s a great switch here from the sub-microscopic strings that make up string theory to the actual physical strings you can tie in real life. This sentence hints that the rest of the essay will continue playing with linked, albeit not typically connected, concepts. All children, except one, grow up. (J. M. Barrie, Peter Pan) In just six words, this sentence upends everything we think we know about what happens to human beings. First Sentence Idea 5: The End- Making the Rest of the Essay a Flashback I’ve recently come to the realization that community service just isn’t for me. (Kyla ’19 for Johns Hopkins University) This seems pretty bold- aren’t we supposed to be super into community service? Is this person about to declare herself to be totally selfish and uncaring about the less fortunate? We want to know the story that would lead someone to this kind of conclusion. Many years later, as he faced the firing squad, Colonel Aureliano Buendà ­a was to remember that distant afternoon when his father took him to discover ice. (Gabriel Garcà ­a Mrquez, One Hundred Years of Solitude) So many amazing details here. Why is the Colonel being executed? What does "discovering" ice entail? How does he go from ice-discoverer to military commander of some sort to someone condemned to capital punishment? First Sentence Idea 6: Direct Question to the Reader To work well, your question should be especially specific, come out of left field, or pose a surprising hypothetical. How does an agnostic Jew living in the Diaspora connect to Israel? (Essay #3 from Carleton College’s sample essays) This is a thorny opening, raising questions about the difference between being an ethnic Jew and practicing the religion of Judaism, and the obligations of Jews who live outside of Israel to those who live in Israel and vice versa. There's a lot of meat to this question, setting up a philosophically interesting, politically important, and personally meaningful essay. While traveling through the daily path of life, have you ever stumbled upon a hidden pocket of the universe? (First line from a student in Stanford’s class of 2012) There’s a dreamy and sci-fi element to this first sentence, as it tries to find the sublime ("the universe") inside the prosaic ("daily path of life"). First Sentence Idea 7: Lesson You Learned From the Story You’re Telling One way to think about how to do this kind of opening sentence well is to model it on the morals that ended each Aesop's fable. The lesson you learned should be slightly surprising (not necessarily intuitive) and something that someone else might disagree with. Perhaps it wasn't wise to chew and swallow a handful of sand the day I was given my first sandbox, but it seemed like a good idea at the time. (Meagan Spooner ’07 for Hamilton College) The best part of this hilarious sentence is that even in retrospect, eating a handful of sand is only possibly an unwise idea- a qualifier achieved through that great "perhaps." So does that mean it was wise in at least some way to eat the sand? The reader wants to know more. All happy families are alike; each unhappy family is unhappy in its own way. (Leo Tolstoy, Anna Karenina) This immediately sets readers to mentally flip through every unhappy family they’ve ever known to double-check the narrator’s assertion. Did he draw the right conclusion here? How did he come to this realization? The implication that he will tell us all about some dysfunctional drama also has a rubbernecking draw. Now go! And let your first sentences soar like the Wright Brothers' first airplane! How to Write a Pivot Sentence in Your College Essay This is the place in your essay where you go from small to big- from the life experience you describe in detail to the bigger point this experience illustrates about your world and yourself. Typically, the pivot sentence will come at the end of your introductory section, about halfway through the essay. I say sentence, but this section could be more than one sentence (though ideally no longer than two or three). So how do you make the turn? Usually you indicate in your pivot sentence itself that you are moving from one part of the essay to another. This is called signposting, and it's a great way to keep readers updated on where they are in the flow of the essay and your argument. Here are three ways to do this, with real-life examples from college essays published by colleges. Pivot Idea 1: Expand the Time Frame In this pivot, you gesture out from the specific experience you describe to the overarching realization you had during it. Think of helper phrases such as "that was the moment I realized" and "never again would I." Suddenly, two things simultaneously clicked. One was the lock on the door. (I actually succeeded in springing it.) The other was the realization that I’d been in this type of situation before. In fact, I’d been born into this type of situation. (Stephen '19 for Johns Hopkins University) This is a pretty great pivot, neatly connecting the story Stephen's been telling (about having to break into a car on a volunteering trip) and his general reliance on his own resourcefulness and ability to roll with whatever life throws at him. It's a double bonus that he accomplishes the pivot with a play on the word "click," which here means both the literal clicking of the car door latch and the figurative clicking his brain does. Note also how the pivot crystallizes the moment of epiphany through the word "suddenly," which implies instant insight. But in that moment I realized that the self-deprecating jokes were there for a reason. When attempting to climb the mountain of comedic success, I didn't just fall and then continue on my journey, but I fell so many times that I befriended the ground and realized that the middle of the metaphorical mountain made for a better campsite. Not because I had let my failures get the best of me, but because I had learned to make the best of my failures. (Rachel Schwartzbaum '19 for Connecticut College) This pivot similarly focuses on a "that moment" of illuminated clarity. In this case, it broadens Rachel's experience of stage fright before her standup comedy sets to the way she has more generally not allowed failures to stop her progress- and has instead been able to use them as learning experiences. Not only does she describe her humor as "self-deprecating," but she also demonstrates what she means with that great "befriended the ground" line. It was on this first educational assignment that I realized how much could be accomplished through an animal education program- more, in some cases, than the aggregate efforts of all of the rehabilitators. I found that I had been naive in my assumption that most people knew as much about wildlife as I did, and that they shared my respect for animals. (J.P. Maloney '07 for Hamilton College) This is another classically constructed pivot, as J.P. segues from his negative expectations about using a rehabilitated wild owl as an educational animal to his understanding of how much this kind of education could contribute to forming future environmentalists and nature lovers. The widening of scope happens at once as we go from a highly specific "first educational assignment" to the more general realization that "much" could be accomplished through these kinds of programs. Pivot Idea 2: Link the Described Experience With Others In this pivot, you draw a parallel between the life event that you've been describing in your very short story and other events that were similar in some significant way. Helpful phrases include "now I see how x is really just one of the many x’s I have faced," "in a way, x is a good example of the x-like situations I see daily," and "and from then on every time I ..." This state of discovery is something I strive for on a daily basis. My goal is to make all the ideas in my mind fit together like the gears of a Swiss watch. Whether it's learning a new concept in linear algebra, talking to someone about a programming problem, or simply zoning out while I read, there is always some part of my day that pushes me towards this place of cohesion: an idea that binds together some set of the unsolved mysteries in my mind. (Aubrey Anderson '19 for Tufts University) After cataloging and detailing the many interesting thoughts that flow through her brain in a specific hour, Aubrey uses the pivot to explain that this is what every waking hour is like for her "on a daily basis." She loves learning different things and finds a variety of fields fascinating. And her pivot lets us know that her example is a demonstration of how her mind works generally. This was the first time I’ve been to New Mexico since he died. Our return brought so much back for me. I remembered all the times we’d visited when I was younger, certain events highlighted by the things we did: Dad haggling with the jewelry sellers, his minute examination of pots at a trading post, the affection he had for chilies. I was scared that my love for the place would be tainted by his death, diminished without him there as my guide. That fear was part of what kept my mother and me away for so long. Once there, though, I was relieved to realize that Albuquerque still brings me closer to my father. (Essay #1 from Carleton College’s sample essays) In this pivot, one very painful experience of visiting a place filled with sorrowful memories is used as a way to think about "all the other times" the author had been to New Mexico. The previously described trip after the father's death pivots into a sense of the continuity of memory. Even though he is no longer there to "guide," the author's love for the place itself remains. Pivot Idea 3: Extract and Underline a Trait or Value In this type of pivot, you use the experience you've described to demonstrate its importance in developing or zooming in on one key attribute. Here are some ways to think about making this transition: "I could not have done it without characteristic y, which has helped me through many other difficult moments," or "this is how I came to appreciate the importance of value z, both in myself and in those around me." My true reward of having Stanley is that he opened the door to the world of botany. I would never have invested so much time learning about the molecular structure or chemical balance of plants if not for taking care of him. (Michaela '19 for Johns Hopkins University) In this tongue-in-cheek essay in which Michaela writes about Stanley, a beloved cactus, as if "he" has human qualities and is her child, the pivot explains what makes this plant so meaningful to its owner. Without having to "take care of him," Michaela "would never have invested so much time learning" about plant biology. She has a deep affinity for the natural sciences and attributes her interest at least partly to her cactus. By leaving me free to make mistakes and chase wild dreams, my father was always able to help ground me back in reality. Personal responsibilities, priorities and commitments are all values that are etched into my mind, just as they are within my father’s. (Olivia Rabbitt '16 for Connecticut College) In Olivia's essay about her father's role in her life, the pivot discusses his importance by explaining his deep impact on her values. Olivia has spent the story part of her essay describing her father's background and their relationship. Now, she is free to show how without his influence, she would not be so strongly committed to "personal responsibilities, priorities and commitments." Want to build the best possible college application? We can help. PrepScholar Admissions is the world's best admissions consulting service. We combine world-class admissions counselors with our data-driven, proprietary admissions strategies. We've overseen thousands of students get into their top choice schools, from state colleges to the Ivy League. We know what kinds of students colleges want to admit. We want to get you admitted to your dream schools. Learn more about PrepScholar Admissions to maximize your chance of getting in. A great pivot is like great parkour- sharp, fast, and coming on a slightly unexpected curve. (Peter Waterman/Flickr) College Essay Introduction Examples We've collected many examples of college essays published by colleges and offered a breakdown of how several of them are put together. Now, let's check out a couple of examples of actual college essay beginnings to show you how and why they work. Sample Intro 1 A blue seventh place athletic ribbon hangs from my mantel. Every day, as I walk into my living room, the award mockingly congratulates me as I smile. Ironically, the blue seventh place ribbon resembles the first place ribbon in color; so, if I just cover up the tip of the seven, I may convince myself that I championed the fourth heat. But, I never dare to wipe away the memory of my seventh place swim; I need that daily reminder of my imperfection. I need that seventh place. Two years ago, I joined the no-cut swim team. That winter, my coach unexpectedly assigned me to swim the 500 freestyle. After stressing for hours about swimming 20 laps in a competition, I mounted the blocks, took my mark, and swam. Around lap 14, I looked around at the other lanes and did not see anyone. "I must be winning!" I thought to myself. However, as I finally completed my race and lifted my arms up in victory to the eager applause of the fans, I looked up at the score board. I had finished my race in last place. In fact, I left the pool two minutes after the second-to-last competitor, who now stood with her friends, wearing all her clothes. (From "The Unathletic Department" by Meghan ’17 for Johns Hopkins University) Why Intro Sample 1 Works Here are some of the main reasons that this essay's introduction is super effective. #1: It's Got a Great First Sentence The sentence is short but still does some scene setting with the descriptive "blue" and the location "from my mantel." It introduces a funny element with "seventh place"- why would that bad of a showing even get a ribbon? It dangles information just out of reach, making the reader want to know more: what was this an award for? Why does this definitively non-winning ribbon hang in such a prominent place of pride? #2: It Has Lots of Detail In the intro, we get physical actions: "cover up the tip," "mounted the blocks," "looked around at the other lanes," "lifted my arms up," and "stood with her friends, wearing all her clothes." We also get words conveying emotion: "mockingly congratulates me as I smile," "unexpectedly assigned," and "stressing for hours." Finally, we get descriptive specificity in the precise word choice: "from my mantel" and "my living room" instead of simply "in my house," and "lap 14" instead of "toward the end of the race." #3: It Explains the Stakes Even though everyone can imagine the lap pool, not everyone knows exactly what the "500 freestyle" race is. Meghan elegantly explains the difficulty by describing herself freaking out over "swimming 20 laps in a competition," which helps us to picture the swimmer going back and forth many times. #4: It Has Great Storytelling We basically get a sports commentary play-by-play here. Even though we already know the conclusion- Meghan came in 7th- she still builds suspense by narrating the race from her point of view as she was swimming it. She's nervous for a while, and then she starts the race. Close to the end, she starts to think everything is going well ("I looked around at the other lanes and did not see anyone. 'I must be winning!' I thought to myself."). Everything builds to an expected moment of great triumph ("I finally completed my race and lifted my arms up in victory to the eager applause of the fans") but ends in total defeat ("I had finished my race in last place"). Not only that, but the mildly clichà ©d sports hype is hilariously undercut by reality ("I left the pool two minutes after the second-to-last competitor, who now stood with her friends, wearing all her clothes"). #5: It Uses a Pivot Sentence This essay uses the time expansion method of pivoting: "But, I never dare to wipe away the memory of my seventh place swim; I need that daily reminder of my imperfection. I need that seventh place." Coming last in the race was something that happened once, but the award is now an everyday experience of humility. The rest of the essay explores what it means for Meghan to constantly see this reminder of failure and to transform it into a sense of acceptance of her imperfections. Notice also that in this essay, the pivot comes before the main story, helping us "hear" the narrative in the way she wants us to. Sample Intro 2 "Biogeochemical. It’s a word, I promise!" There are shrieks and shouts in protest and support. Unacceptable insults are thrown, degrees and qualifications are questioned, I think even a piece of my grandmother’s famously flakey parantha whizzes past my ear. Everyone is too lazy to take out a dictionary (or even their phones) to look it up, so we just hash it out. And then, I am crowned the victor, a true success in the Merchant household. But it is fleeting, as the small, glossy, plastic tiles, perfectly connected to form my winning word, are snatched out from under me and thrown in a pile with all the disgraced, "unwinning" tiles as we mix for our next game of Bananagrams. It’s a similar donnybrook, this time ending with my father arguing that it is okay to use "Rambo" as a word (it totally is not). Words and communicating have always been of tremendous importance in my life: from silly games like Bananagrams and our road-trip favorite "word game," to stunted communication between opposing grandparents, each speaking a different Indian language; from trying to understand the cheesemonger behind the counter with a deep southern drawl (I just want some Camembert!), to shaping a script to make people laugh. Words are moving and changing; they have influence and substance. From an Essay by Shaan Merchant ‘19 for Tufts University Want to write the perfect college application essay? Get professional help from PrepScholar. Your dedicated PrepScholar Admissions counselor will craft your perfect college essay, from the ground up. We'll learn your background and interests, brainstorm essay topics, and walk you through the essay drafting process, step-by-step. At the end, you'll have a unique essay that you'll proudly submit to your top choice colleges. Don't leave your college application to chance. Find out more about PrepScholar Admissions now: Why Intro Sample 2 Works Let's take a look at what qualities make this essay's introduction particularly memorable. #1: It's Got a Great First Sentence With the first sentence, we are immediately thrust into the middle of the action- into an exciting part of an argument about whether "biogeochemical" is really a word. We're also immediately challenged. Is this a word? Have I ever heard it before? Does a scientific neologism count as a word? #2: It Shows Rather Than Tells Since the whole essay is going to be about words, it makes sense for Shaan to demonstrate his comfort with all different kinds of language: Complex, elevated vocabulary, such as "biogeochemical" and "donnybrook" Foreign words, such as "parantha" and "Camembert" Colorful descriptive words, such as "shrieks and shouts," "famously flakey, "whizzes past," and "hash it out" "Fake" words, such as "unwinning" and "Rambo" What’s great is that Shaan is able to seamlessly mix the different tones and registers these words imply, going from cerebral to funny and back again. #3: It Uses a Pivot Sentence This essay uses the value-extraction style of pivot: "Words and communicating have always been of tremendous importance in my life." After we see an experience linking Shaan’s clear love of his family with an interest in word games, he clarifies that this is exactly what the essay will be about- using a very straightforward pivoting sentence. #4: It Piles On Examples to Avoid Vagueness The danger of this kind of pivot sentence is slipping into vague, uninformative statements, such as "I love words." To avoid making a generalization the tells us nothing, the essay builds a list of examples of times when Shaan saw the way that words connect people: games ("Bananagrams and our road-trip favorite ‘word game,’"), his mixed-language family ("grandparents, each speaking a different Indian language"), encounters with strangers ("from trying to understand the cheesemonger"), and finally the more active experience of performing ("shaping a script to make people laugh"). But the essay stops short of giving so many examples that the reader drowns. I'd say three to five examples is a good range- as long as they're all different kinds of the same thing. Several keys offer a good chance of unlocking a door; a giant pile of keys is its own unsolvable maze. The Bottom Line: How to Start a College Essay The college essay introduction should hook your reader and make her want to know more and read more. Good personal statement introductions will contain the following features: A killer first line A detailed description of an experience from your life A pivot to the bigger picture, in which you explain why and how this experience has shaped you, your point of view, and/or your values. You don’t have to write the introduction first, and you certainly don’t have to write your first sentence first. Instead, start by developing your story by telling it out loud to a friend. You can then work on your first sentence and your pivot. The first sentence should either be short, punchy, and carry some ambiguity or questions, or be a detailed and beautiful description setting an easily pictured scene. The pivot, on the other hand, should answer the question, "How does the story you’ve told connect to a larger truth or insight about you?" What’s Next? Wondering what to make of the Common Application essay prompts? We have the complete list of this year’s Common App prompts with explanations of what each is asking as well as a guide to picking the Common App prompt that’s perfect for you. Thinking of applying to the University of California system? Check out our detailed guide on how to approach their essay prompts and craft your ideal UC essay. If you’re in the middle of the essay-writing process, you’ll want to see our suggestions on what essay pitfalls to avoid. Working on the rest of your college application? Read what admissions officers wish applicants knew before applying. Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points? We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now:

Friday, February 14, 2020

Use of Facebook by Non-Profit Agencies Speech or Presentation

Use of Facebook by Non-Profit Agencies - Speech or Presentation Example Using Facebook for professional communication not only improves the efficiency of communications in the organizations but it also encourages it to maximize the impact of its presence within a particular community. According to Waters (2009), non profit organizations can significantly use Facebook and other similar social networking sites to advance their programs and missions. Although possessing a Facebook profile does not necessarily result in an influx of participation, it significantly increases the awareness and improves the relationship between the organization and its stakeholders. This presentation focuses on the various ways through which non profit organizations can effectively use Facebook for their professional communications.... Another important Facebook application that is significantly useful for professional communication for organizations is known as Group or Community pages. By creating Group/Community pages on their Facebook profiles, non profit agencies can enhance the popularity of their services and promote their programs. Christ (2005) argues that organizations can also open up discussion forums using their group pages to obtain suggestions regarded the changes they should make in the provision of their services and products. One of the ways through which our non profit organization can effectively use Facebook as a tool for professional communication is to increase transparency and openness in both our management functions and programs. The recent cases of corruption in various non profit sectors call for these organizations to use social networking sites such as Facebook in their official and professional communications. Consequently this will ensure increased transparency through the provision of a detailed description of the programs and activities of the organization as well as its history on its Facebook official web page. Creating a Facebook webpage can also help our organization to establish a closer relationship with its various stakeholders such as donors, target communities and government agencies (Hill and White, 2000). This is because an official web page at the social network site will improve our message dissemination through the use of the many Facebook applications such as posting of links to important new events in the organization, giving more information on the future causes of the organization as well as posting videos, photographs